Luxembourg's national statistical institute, STATEC, has reported that as of 1 January 2023, the population of the Grand Duchy had reached 660,809 - an increase of 2.4% compared to the previous year.
Luxembourg's population increased by 15,412 individuals (up from 645,397) between the start of 2022 and the beginning of 2023. STATEC noted that the population has increased by 81% since 1981.
Due to more migrant men than women, the share of men in the population has been slightly larger than that of women since 2014. In 2023, men made up 50.3% of the population, whilst women represented 49.7% of the population; the surplus of men stood at 4,079.
The proportion of foreign nationals has risen steadily over time, from 26.3% in 1981 to 47.4% in 2023. Overall, however, this proportion has been falling slightly since 2018 (when it stood at 47.9%) owing to the impact of the acquisition of Luxembourgish nationality since the 2009 law on dual nationality. As of 1 January 2023, there were 347,402 Luxembourgers and 313,407 foreigners (making up 47.4% of the population) residing in the Grand Duchy.
Note that among the Luxembourgers, 79.4% only had Luxembourgish nationality, whilst 20.6% had at least one other nationality (compared to just 5.2% in 2011). 25.3% of dual nationals also had Portuguese nationality, 14.4% had French, 7.8% had Italian and 7.5% had Belgian nationality. 3.7% (2,611 people) were also British nationals.
With 204,358 residents, Luxembourg was the most populated canton in the Grand Duchy. Luxembourg City alone counted 132,780 residents. Esch-sur-Alzette was the second most populated canton, with 189,540 residents, far ahead of the canton of Capellen, with 52,828 residents. Vianden was the least populated canton, with 5,594 residents.
The age structure of the Luxembourg population has changed in recent decades. There are increasingly fewer young people aged 0-19 in relative terms, while those aged 40-64 and 80 and over, respectively, are increasing in relative numbers.
STATEC also noted that 6,495 births and 4,449 deaths among the Luxembourg population were recorded on the national territory in 2022. Compared to the previous year, births fell by 2.9% while deaths fell by 0.9%. The natural balance thus amounted to 2,046 people.
The 2023 edition of the report "La démographie luxembourgeoise en chiffres" is available (in French) as a PDF here.